# SICP - Solution: Exercise 2.6

## Jan 8, 2019 07:09 · 282 words · 2 minute read

**Exercise 2.6:** In case representing pairs as procedures wasn’t mind-boggling enough, consider that, in a language that can manipulate procedures, we can get by without numbers (at least insofar as nonnegative integers are concerned) by implementing 0 and the operation of adding 1 as

```
(define zero (lambda (f) (lambda (x) x)))
(define (add-1 n)
(lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f ((n f) x)))))
```

This representation is known as Church numeral’s, after its inventor, Alonzo Church, the logician who invented the λ-calculus.

Define `one`

and `two`

directly (not in terms of `zero`

and `add-1`

). (Hint: Use substitution to evaluate `(add-1 zero)`

). Give a direct definition of the addition procedure `+`

(not in terms of repeated application of `add-1`

).

**Solution**

```
(add-1 zero)
(add-1 (lambda (f) (lambda (x) x))
(lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (((lambda (f) (lambda (x) x) f) x))))
(lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (f x))))
```

From this we can define:

```
(define one (lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (f x)))))
```

```
(add-1 one)
(add-1 (lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (f x)))))
(lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (((lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (f x)))) f) x))))
(lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (f (f x)))))
```

From this we can define:

```
(define two (lambda (f) (lambda (x) (f (f (f x))))))
```

The addition will be defined as:

```
(define (add m n)
(lambda (f) (lambda (x) ((m f) ((n f) x)))))
```

To check the result, we can define `f`

as `add1`

and `x`

as 0:

```
(define one (add-1 zero))
(define two (add-1 one))
(define three (add-1 two))
(print ((zero add1) 0)) (newline)
(print (((add-1 zero) add1) 0)) (newline)
(print (((add-1 (add-1 zero)) add1) 0)) (newline)
(print (((add-1 (add-1 zero)) add1) 0)) (newline)
(print (((add three two) add1) 0)) (newline)
```