SICP - Solution: Exercise 1.10

Oct 1, 2018 21:06 · 1733 words · 9 minute read

Exercise 1.10

The following procedure computes a mathematical function called Ackermann’s function.

(define (A x y)
  (cond ((= y 0) 0)
        ((= x 0) (* 2 y))
        ((= y 1) 2)
        (else (A (- x 1)
                 (A x (- y 1))))))

What are the values of the following expressions?

(A 1 10)
(A 2 4)
(A 3 3)

Consider the following procedures, where A is the procedure defined above:

(define (f n) (A 0 n))
(define (g n) (A 1 n))
(define (h n) (A 2 n))
(define (k n) (* 5 n n))

Give concise mathematical definitions for the functions computed by the procedures f, g, and h for positive integer values of n. For example, (k n) computes $5n^2$.

Solution

All the following expansion has been painstakingly made by hand.

(A 1 10)
(A 0 (A 1 9))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 1 8)))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 7))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 6)))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 5))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 4)))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 3))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 2)))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 1))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2)))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 4))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 8)))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 16))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 32)))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 64))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 128)))
(A 0 (A 0 256))
(A 0 512)
1024
(A 2 4)
(A 1 (A 2 3))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 2 2)))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 1 (A 2 1))))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 1 2)))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 0 (A 1 1))))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 0 2)))
(A 1 (A 1 4))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 1 3)))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 2))))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 1)))))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2))))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 4)))
(A 1 (A 0 8))
(A 1 16)
(A 0 (A 1 15))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 1 14)))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 13))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 12)))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 11))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 10)))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 9))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 8)))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 7))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 6)))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 5))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 4)))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 3))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 2)))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 1))))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2)))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 4))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 8)))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 16))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 32)))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 64))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 128)))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 256))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 512)))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 1024))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2048)))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 4096))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 8192)))
(A 0 (A 0 16384))
(A 0 32768)
65536
(A 3 3)
(A 2 (A 3 2))
(A 2 (A 2 (A 3 1)))
(A 2 (A 2 2))
(A 2 (A 1 (A 2 1)))
(A 2 (A 1 2))
(A 2 (A 0 (A 1 1)))
(A 2 (A 0 2))
(A 2 4)
(A 1 (A 2 3))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 2 2)))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 1 (A 2 1))))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 1 2)))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 0 (A 1 1))))
(A 1 (A 1 (A 0 2)))
(A 1 (A 1 4))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 1 3)))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 2))))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 1)))))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2))))
(A 1 (A 0 (A 0 4)))
(A 1 (A 0 8))
(A 1 16)
(A 0 (A 1 15))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 1 14)))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 13))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 12)))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 11))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 10)))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 9))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 8)))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 7))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 6)))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 5))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 4)))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 3))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 2)))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 1 1))))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2)))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 4))))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 8)))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 16))))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 32)))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 64))))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 128)))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 256))))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 512)))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 1024))))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 2048)))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 (A 0 4096))))
(A 0 (A 0 (A 0 8192)))
(A 0 (A 0 16384))
(A 0 32768)
65536

${2^{16}} = 65536$

(define (f n) (A 0 n))
(define (g n) (A 1 n))
(define (h n) (A 2 n))

$f(n) = 2n$

$g(n) = 2^{n}$

$h(n) = 2^{h(n-1)}$

Using the tracing function in DrRacket would by more efficient than doing all by hand, but not as fun.